In our reasonings concerning matter of fact, there are all imaginable degrees of assurance, from the highest certainty to the lowest species of moral evidence A wise man, therefore, proportions his belief to the evidence Best summary I ve seen As intriguing today as when it was first published, Hume s An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is a fascinating exploration into the nature of human knowledge Using billiard balls, candles and other colorful examples, Hume conveys the core of hiIn our reasonings concerning matter of fact, there are all imaginable degrees of assurance, from the highest certainty to the lowest species of moral evidence A wise man, therefore, proportions his belief to the evidence Best summary I ve seen As intriguing today as when it was first published, Hume s An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is a fascinating exploration into the nature of human knowledge Using billiard balls, candles and other colorful examples, Hume conveys the core of his empiricism that true knowledge can only be gained through sensory experience No other philosopher has been at the forefront of the mind than David Hume physics, psychology, neuroscience connections to Hume are everywhere Here is the book that Immanuel Kant confessed to have awoken him from his dogmatic slumber In a way, it reminded me of A BriefER History of Time as Hawking also used billiard balls as explanatory props Especially loved the endingIf we take in our hand any volume of divinity or school metaphysics, for instance, let us ask, Does it contain any abstract reasoning concerning quantity or number No Does it contain any experimental reasoning concerning matter of fact and existence No Commit it then to the flames, for it can contain nothing but sophistry and illusion If we take in our hand any volume of divinity or school metaphysics, for instance let us ask,Does it contain any abstract reasoning concerning quantity or numberNoDoes it contain any experimental reasoning concerning matter of fact and existence No Commit it then to the flames For it can contain nothing but sophistry and illusion p.120 Burning had long been a common fate of atheistic books Perhaps Hume is suggesting here that the wrong books have been destroyed from th If we take in our hand any volume of divinity or school metaphysics, for instance let us ask,Does it contain any abstract reasoning concerning quantity or numberNoDoes it contain any experimental reasoning concerning matter of fact and existence No Commit it then to the flames For it can contain nothing but sophistry and illusion p.120 Burning had long been a common fate of atheistic books Perhaps Hume is suggesting here that the wrong books have been destroyed from the notes by Peter Millican Returning to an old friend The first text I was given to study as a philosophy undergraduate, and what pleasure to revisit.I m not sure that Hume changed my thinking as a young man so much as brought the delight of recognition The sweeping away of superstition, fantasy systems, spiritual mumbo jumbo and so on has never for me disabled a propensity towards reflection or deep attachment to a cleaner, less encumbered mystery Kant, too, found his religious faith strengthened by such clarity.I was Returning to an old friend The first text I was given to study as a philosophy undergraduate, and what pleasure to revisit.I m not sure that Hume changed my thinking as a young man so much as brought the delight of recognition The sweeping away of superstition, fantasy systems, spiritual mumbo jumbo and so on has never for me disabled a propensity towards reflection or deep attachment to a cleaner, less encumbered mystery Kant, too, found his religious faith strengthened by such clarity.I was taught philosophy very much in the empiricist and positivist traditions, and whatever crude antagonisms to these have arisen among defenders of this or that faith, have found no difficulty whatsoever in reconciling particular modes of philosophical thinking with poetic, aesthetic and, yes, spiritual modes Indeed, reading Hume is its own reward for the pleasure of the text There is nothing but clarity and wisdom in Hume One has to be one s own conclusion and wisdom in considering the place of closed systems such as language, or in this case the various Hume given patterns and any approach to ethics, epistemology, aesthetics, reality , spirit etc the noumenal but you d be indeed in a deep dogmatic slumber if you didn t appreciate the concision of Hume as probably the greatest help of all in beginning philosophy today I didn t particularly enjoy this book Hume is both pretentious and self indulgent While he makes a good case for experience being a necessary prerequisite for knowing effect from cause, he also contradicts himself variously and accords to experienceauthority than he accredits it in certain other parts of this book That a certain effect has happened numerous times before is no guarantee that it will happen again true enough Hume says that it is simply custom to credit any particular I didn t particularly enjoy this book Hume is both pretentious and self indulgent While he makes a good case for experience being a necessary prerequisite for knowing effect from cause, he also contradicts himself variously and accords to experienceauthority than he accredits it in certain other parts of this book That a certain effect has happened numerous times before is no guarantee that it will happen again true enough Hume says that it is simply custom to credit any particular effect with empirical authority But wait until he gets to the chapter on miracles here he gives experience over arching authority to know exactly what nature and it s laws will give rise to Hume argues that cause and effect are known only through experience and one experience will apply to other cause and effect occurrences when they are apparently similar He admits that much of this cause effect process occurs because of unintelligible secret powers that are inscrutable to reason Whilst admitting that experience isor less mere custom and admitting the inscrutability of secret processes, Hume undoes his argument and gauges the miraculous using the means he just put in doubtful standing What an egregious error of logic what a way to dig your own philosophical grave to cast doubt on a particular method of reasoning and then endue it with absolute authority Hume says no one has ever seen anyone rise from the dead anywhere, so presumes Hume who says that no occurrence is illogical that doesn t involve a contradiction Hume presumes to use his customary experience to measure all events everywhere, regardless of whether he was present or not He uses the example of an Indian disbelieving that water could become hard because of cold in his argument against miracles, when in fact it works against Hume The example was to illustrate ignorance of physical laws that can seem miraculous when one has not experienced them Same argument works against Hume Hume thinks that a ship being suspended in air is a miracle an example that is altogether ironic, given that in the 21st century we see jet airliners suspended in the air regularly This would be a miracle to Hume, but all it really shows is Hume s 18th century ignorance of the principles of propulsion, aerodynamics and lift Hume, as he admitted, has no means of knowing all natural laws and when and where they can be superseded because of other secret powers or laws coming into play His chapter on miracles is a bit of a comical irony Hume makes much of probability A one thousand sided dye with nine hundred and ninety nine uniform sides with only one differentiated side figures in his argument regarding probability It s an interesting analogy and example Miracles by their very nature are not regular occurrences, just as the probability of one particular side appearing in a one thousand sided dye in a roll is not a regular occurrence A miracle only has to happen once in experience to be an experimental fact If it occurs even once, all arguments to the contrary are simply willful ignorance and, in Hume s case, pretentious sophistry The only thing that saves this book from a 2 star review is his chapter Of The Idea Of Necessary Connexion which I must admit was quite intriguing If I ever re read Hume, it will probably be only this chapter and little else Hume, subsequently, became the darling of atheists and his arguments are often recycled by them ad nauseam still This, once again, shows the ignorance of atheists and their tendency to cherry pick sources Hume wasn t an atheist, if anything he was a deist although, he seems to make some claims to Christian belief, which can only be seen as ridiculous given his above positions Hume discusses the distinction between impressions and ideas By impressions , he means sensations, while by ideas , he means memories and imaginings According to Hume, the difference between the two is that ideas are less vivacious than impressions For example, the idea of the taste of an orange is far inferior to the impression or sensation of actually eating one Writing within the tradition of empiricism, he argues that impressions are the source of all ideas Hume s empiricism consist Hume discusses the distinction between impressions and ideas By impressions , he means sensations, while by ideas , he means memories and imaginings According to Hume, the difference between the two is that ideas are less vivacious than impressions For example, the idea of the taste of an orange is far inferior to the impression or sensation of actually eating one Writing within the tradition of empiricism, he argues that impressions are the source of all ideas Hume s empiricism consisted in the idea that it is our knowledge, and not our ability to conceive, that is restricted to what can be experienced He also explains that the difference between belief and fiction is that the former produces a certain feeling of confidence which the latter doesn t.When we reason a priori, and consider merely any object or cause, as it appears to the mind, independent of all observation, it never could suggest to us the notion of any distinct object, such as its effect much less, show us the inseparable and inviolable connexion between them A man must be very sagacious who could discover by reasoning that crystal is the effect of heat, and ice of cold, without being previously acquainted with the operation of these qualities.If we reason a priori, anything may appear able to produce anything The falling of a pebble may, for aught we know, extinguish the sun or the wish of a man control the planets in their orbits It is only experience, which teaches us the nature and bounds of cause and effect, and enables us to infer the existence of one object from that of another.However, Hume admits that there is one objection to his account the problem of The Missing Shade of Blue In this thought experiment, he asks us to imagine a man who has experienced every shade of blue except for one He predicts that this man will be able to divide the color of this particular shade of blue, despite the fact that he has never experienced it This seems to pose a serious problem for the empirical account, though Hume brushes it aside as an exceptional case by stating that one may experience a novel idea that itself is derived from combinations of previous impressions.Hume accepts that ideas may be either the product of mere sensation, or of the imagination working in conjunction with sensation According to Hume, the creative faculty makes use of at least four mental operations which produce imaginings out of sense impressions These operations are compounding or the addition of one idea onto another, such as a horn on a horse to create a unicorn transposing or the substitution of one part of a thing with the part from another, such as with the body of a man upon a horse to make a centaur augmenting as with the case of a giant, whose size has been augmented and diminishing as with Lilliputians, whose size has been diminished Hume discusses how the objects of inquiry are either relations of ideas or matters of fact , which is roughly the distinction between analytic and synthetic propositions The former, he tells the reader, are proved by demonstration, while the latter are given through experience But here arises a question, why do we suppose that multiple repetitions of an experiment justify us in a necessary law He shows how a satisfying argument for the validity of experience can be based neither on demonstration since it implies no contradiction that the course of nature may change nor experience since that would be a circular argument So there is no certainty of experience to ensure knowledge through cause and effect.When it is asked, What is the nature of all our reasonings concerning matter of fact the proper answer seems to be, that they are founded on the relation of cause and effect When again it is asked, What is the foundation of all our reasonings and conclusions concerning that relation it may be replied in one word, experience But if we still carry on our sifting humor, and ask, What is the foundation of all conclusions from experience this implies a new question, which may be ofdifficult solution and explication All reasonings may be divided into two kinds, namely, demonstrative reasoning or that concerning relations of ideas, and moral reasoning, or that concerning matter of fact and existence That there are no demonstrative arguments in the case seems evident since it implies no contradiction that the course of nature may change, and that an object, seemingly like those which we have experienced, may be attended with different or contrary effects May I not clearly and distinctly conceive that a body, falling from the clouds, and which, in all other respects, resembles snow, has yet the taste of salt or feeling of fire Is there anyintelligible proposition than to affirm, that all the trees will Sourish in December and January, and decay in May and June Now whatever is intelligible, and can be distinctly conceived, implies no contradiction, and can never be proved false by any demonstrative argument or abstract reasoning a priori.If we be, therefore, engaged by arguments to put trust in past experience, and make it the standard of our future judgement, these arguments must be probable only, or such as regard matter of fact and real existence, according to the division above mentioned But that there is no argument of this kind, must appear, if our explication of that species of reasoning be admitted as solid and satisfactory We have said that all arguments concerning existence are founded on the relation of cause and effect, that our knowledge of that relation is derived entirely from experience, and that all our experimental conclusions proceed upon the supposition that the future will be conformable to the past To endeavour, therefore, the proof of this last supposition by probable arguments, or arguments regarding existence, must be evidently going in a circle, and taking that for granted, which is the very point in question For all inferences from experience suppose, as their foundation, that the future will resemble the past, and that similar powers will be conjoined with similar sensible qualities If there be any suspicion that the course of nature may change, and that the past may be no rule for the future, all experience becomes useless, and can give rise to no inference or conclusion It is impossible, therefore, that any arguments from experience can prove this resemblance of the past to the future since all these arguments are founded on the supposition of that resemblance For Hume, we assume that experience tells us something about the world because of habit or custom due to our imagination, the observation of constant conjunction of certain impressions across many instances This is also, presumably, the principle that organizes the connections between ideas And this principle can be changed any time because there is no logical reason or empirical justification for it to be necessary.The first time a man saw the communication of motion by impulse, as by the shock of two billiard balls, he could not pronounce that the one event was connected but only that it was conjoined with the other After he has observed several instances of this nature, he then pronounces them to be connected What alteration has happened to give rise to this new idea of connexion Nothing but that he now feels these events to be connected in his imagination, and can readily foretell the existence of one from the appearance of the other When we say, therefore, that one object is connected with another, we mean only that they have acquired a connexion in our thought, and give rise to this inference, by which they become proofs of each other s existence A conclusion which is somewhat extraordinary, but which seems founded on sufficient evidence Nor will its evidence be weakened by any general diffidence of the understanding, or sceptical suspicion concerning every conclusion which is new and extraordinary No conclusions can beagreeable to scepticism than such as make discoveries concerning the weakness and narrow limits of human reason and capacity.It seems evident that, if all the scenes of nature were continually shifted in such a manner that no two events bore any resemblance to each other, but every object was entirely new, without any similitude to whatever had been seen before, we should never, in that case, have attained the least idea of necessity, or of a connexion among these objects We might say, upon such a supposition, that one object or event has followed another not that one was produced by the other The relation of cause and effect must be utterly unknown to mankind Inference and reasoning concerning the operations of nature would, from that moment, be at an end and the memory and senses remain the only canals, by which the knowledge of any real existence could possibly have access to the mind Our idea, therefore, of necessity and causation arises entirely from the uniformity observable in the operations of nature, where similar objects are constantly conjoined together, and the mind is determined by custom to infer the one from the appearance of the other These two circumstances form the whole of that necessity, which we ascribe to matter Beyond the constant conjunction of similar objects, and the consequent inference from one to the other, we have no notion of any necessity or connexion.Without the influence of custom, we should be entirely ignorant of every matter of fact beyond what is immediately present to the memory and senses We should never know how to adjust means to ends, or to employ our natural powers in the production of any effect There would be an end at once of all action, as well as of the chief part of speculation.When we run over libraries, persuaded of these principles, what havoc must we make If we take in our hand any volume of divinity or school metaphysics, for instance let us ask, Does it contain any abstract reasoning concerning quantity or number No Does it contain any experimental reasoning concerning matter of fact and existence No Commit it then to the flames for it can contain nothing but sophistry and illusion.On Miracles, is the last chapter in the Enquiry, Hume argues that as the evidence for a miracle is always limited, as miracles are single events, occurring at particular times and places, the evidence for the miracle will always be outweighed by the evidence against the evidence for the law of which the miracle is supposed to be a transgression There are, however, two ways in which this argument might be neutralised First, if the number of witnesses of the miracle be greater than the number of witnesses of the operation of the law, and secondly, if a witness be 100% reliable for then no amount of contrary testimony will be enough to outweigh that person s account And both cases can t happen This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers To view it, click here Addition since my first review The Problem of Induction is always something to keep in mind, for we humans are used to finding a solid ground to maintain a sense of certainty on the events of the outside world What reasons are we to justify that what we repeatedly experienced in the past will still continue to happen until the present or future Where do we get that certainty Is it reliable or is only a human need to make sense of a world that in many ways is beyond our control And why shoul Addition since my first review The Problem of Induction is always something to keep in mind, for we humans are used to finding a solid ground to maintain a sense of certainty on the events of the outside world What reasons are we to justify that what we repeatedly experienced in the past will still continue to happen until the present or future Where do we get that certainty Is it reliable or is only a human need to make sense of a world that in many ways is beyond our control And why should we make a general law out of a single or isolated event This was my first whole reading of an actual work by David Hume and it is such an experience to have read something straight from the actual philosopher instead of bits and pieces of biography or explanation of his ideas This book was a revised form of his first work, A Treatise of Human Nature, which was not received with eagerness by the public upon its first publication.First, my impression of Hume s style was that he was frank to the point of being humorous at times with how he pokes at the way people think, behave and react within themselves and their environment His choice of words and the presentation of ideas were presented in a clear and logical style Just like any thinker, he considered himself unrestrained in going against what he thought were unreasonable beliefs, superstitions, and reinforced dogmatism, and as such, allowed himself to go deep in continuous process of questioning in matters of human thought and reaction, events, and the material world It is only experience, which teaches us the nature and bounds of cause and effect, and enables us to infer the existence of one object from that of another Such is the foundation of moral reasoning, which forms the greater part of human knowledge, and is the source of all human action and behaviour He employed a rigorous style of empirical thinking and the way he deduced what he advocated to be the way to having correct understanding of things is through reasoning by analogy All throughout the book, the theme of cause and effect resulting to experience, recurred in all of his ideas, and it is through this means of analogy, by applying ones understanding of experience to something newly encountered, that he applied what he thought was the correctness of knowledge in human thought and the natural world In this book, though I may consider giving it a second reading , I found two striking arguments that Hume made concerning the existence of God, and that of the material world In the first pages, he acknowledged the existence of a Creator by whom everything in the universe is dependent upon But in the middle of the book, he went on to apply his method of analogy and causation to God According to him, every effect must have a cause that brought it to existence For example, the footprint on the sand near the sea must have been caused by a person who walked on the sand What made us to arrive at such a conclusion was we had been taught by prior experience that such a cause a person walking led to an effect footprint on the sand , and therefore, we gain an understanding of the effect simply of our previous experience of actually perceiving the cause This was his way of rigorously applying his empirical thinking which is limited to what is observed and experienced and then to discard everything that does not conform to this method But then, he went on to say that the existence of God cannot be justified because even though we see the creation which is the effect , we had no direct actual experience of its Cause God , so how can we prove the logic of His existence This is where the limitation of logic and rigid empiricism is shown, though Hume will not accept it Reason will always have its limitation, as much as Faith as how Hume subjected it with criticism will have its limitation as well Now that in this book, Hume established how human understanding can be subjected to many factors that will deem it susceptible to many kinds of errors, so too, does his method of reasoning by experience and analogy can be subjected to similar flaws Despite the comparison of what we know of objects and experiences applied to newly encountered objects and experiences, that does not negate the fact that each are distinct from the other with their own unique qualities In the case of the Creator he applies analogy, but he disregards that the Creator is distinct and His Attributes are different from His creation, and therefore for him to make an analogy in the context of the creation is unreasonable Thus, Hume becomes a victim of logic by the fact that he failed to see the difference between what and whom he is trying to compare, because he reduced the notion of qualities to abstract ideas existing only in the human mind Much criticism can be attributed to religious interpretations as practiced by so called religious people, but the depth of faith and wisdom coming from a belief on a Creator will always make a logical sense to humanity What Hume dealt with is narrowly confined to issues of language, but the expression of language cannot be rid of its subjectivity and sophistry on the part of human beings with the way they express and understand it, in contrast to what reality and the actual world really is Human understanding can indeed be flawed, but this flaw allows room for humanity to adapt to an ever changing world It has to grapple with continuous change, which may lead to a downward spiral of conflict and chaos or growth, since the way humans think as influenced both by their innate nature and outside forces lead them to act on many different ways towards their fellow beings and with the world around them On the other hand, if empirical thinking, as what Hume employed in this book is applied in an absolutist sense and make it manifest not only in human thought but in belief, and then subject everything to the limited role of language and reasoning by analogy, including the understanding of the Creator Himself, humanity will be devoid of values and depth of wisdom Language, thought, and experience are thus, among many, are only parts of a complex reality that humans possess, and irrespective of the perception and resulting expression of these human faculties, there is an external world that exist independent of human beings Hume, in this book failed to make a distinction between the perceiver and the perceived And this alludes to the second point.The second subject was Hume s argument on the perception of the material world In this book, he did not go at great lengths in discussing it, although his ideas are particularly insightful in the philosophical sense It is universally allowed by modern enquirers, that all the sensible qualities of objects, such as hard, soft, hot, cold, white, black, etc are merely secondary, and exist not in the objects themselves, but are perceptions of the mind, without any external archetype or model, which they represent If this be allowed, with regard to secondary qualities, it must also follow with regard to the supposed primary qualities of extension and solidity nor can the latter be anyentitled to that denomination than the former The idea of extension is entirely acquired from the senses of sight and feeling and if all the qualities, perceived by the senses, be in the mind, not in the object, the same conclusion must reach the idea of extension which is wholly dependent on the sensible ideas or the ideas of secondary qualities Nothing can save us from this conclusion, but the asserting, that the ideas of those primary qualities are attained by Abstraction, an opinion, which, if we examine it accurately, we shall find to be unintelligible, and even absurd An extension, that is neither tangible nor visible, cannot possibly be conceived and a tangible or visible extension, which is neither hard nor soft, black nor white, is equally beyond the reach of human conception.Bereave matter of all its intelligible qualities, both primary and secondary, you in a manner annihilate it, and leave only a certain unknown, inexplicable something, as the cause of our perceptions a notion so imperfect, that no sceptic will think it worthwhile to contend against it Hume was pointing that the material world cannot possibly exist without human perception consisting of a collection of qualities which were acquired through experience These qualities are described to objects perceived in the material world, but at the same time, they are abstract in nature and only exist in the mind Hume contends that the perceived world is only a collection of qualities that humans attribute to what they perceive, and the independence of the external world as existing apart from the perceiver seems to be only an illusion This reminds me of another passage from a book entitled Consciousness by a Neuroscientist, J Allan Hobson, If a tree falls in the middle of a forest, does it make a sound George Berkeley The immediate answer will be yes , but, what sound does it make if there is nobody to hear it So in this case, we have a world which is centered and continuously subjected to human perception that in Hume s book, is not acknowledged to be existing as independent of human, nevertheless flawed perception and understanding David Hume, in this book, allowed me to re evaluate and re confirm on a much investigative level, the ways and the limitations of human understanding He was a frank and brutally to the point writer, certainly unconventional, not afraid to present alternative modes of thinking and looking at things, and he has to be commended on his empirical method which is useful in the Science disciplines Unfortunately, regardless of how it is presented as an objective systematic manner, Empiricism has its own limitations like human understanding, and cannot apply in an absolutist sense on matters existing beyond the capability and scope of reason and observable experience I enjoyed the straightforward, no nonsense style of this famous philosopher Good though he is, however, his vision of life is that of pure empiricism that all real knowledge is gained only through sense contact In other words he appears to completely disregard a vital aspect of the human consciousness, i.e the possibility of gaining knowledge through contemplating the mind itself, for instance through the practice of mindfulness and meditation Further he discounts the possibility of re I enjoyed the straightforward, no nonsense style of this famous philosopher Good though he is, however, his vision of life is that of pure empiricism that all real knowledge is gained only through sense contact In other words he appears to completely disregard a vital aspect of the human consciousness, i.e the possibility of gaining knowledge through contemplating the mind itself, for instance through the practice of mindfulness and meditation Further he discounts the possibility of recognizing causality, asserting that we only know that b follows a we cannot know, he asserts, that b is caused by a , or that in the presence of a , b always arises, and in a s absence it does not He thus demolishes the whole basis of modern science, together with the most basic formulation of the understanding of what it is to be a wise human being able to affirm the knowledge that flows from a healthy mind untramelled by scepticism An Enquiry concerning Human UnderstandingDavid Hume 1711 1776 Hume s philosophy on understanding is based on reasoning from experimental experience, but also from knowledge gained from tradition and customary behaviour.He visibly draws on knowledge of a wide range of classical and contemporary thinkers, whose views are often interwoven andeasily assimilated in combination.Hume declined any resemblance to religious school metaphysics and favoured a limited sceptic approach to science depen An Enquiry concerning Human UnderstandingDavid Hume 1711 1776 Hume s philosophy on understanding is based on reasoning from experimental experience, but also from knowledge gained from tradition and customary behaviour.He visibly draws on knowledge of a wide range of classical and contemporary thinkers, whose views are often interwoven andeasily assimilated in combination.Hume declined any resemblance to religious school metaphysics and favoured a limited sceptic approach to science depending on circumstances.His writings are composed in an elegantly simple style, full of common sense and would likely be accepted in modern lives understanding of natural philosophy So I had to read this for my class A Prehistory of Affect Reading the Passions It was a pretty panicked situation I got randomly chosen to do a 30 minute presentation on this text in the first week of my Masters I had one week to read the Enquiry and prepare my presentation It was incredibly stressful I ve never read philosophy, I m very unfamiliar with the 18th century, and I had been out of school for year and a half Talk about being kicked back into gear.I don t know how to rate So I had to read this for my class A Prehistory of Affect Reading the Passions It was a pretty panicked situation I got randomly chosen to do a 30 minute presentation on this text in the first week of my Masters I had one week to read the Enquiry and prepare my presentation It was incredibly stressful I ve never read philosophy, I m very unfamiliar with the 18th century, and I had been out of school for year and a half Talk about being kicked back into gear.I don t know how to rate this text It s pretty readable which was nice and a lot of the ideas are interesting and make you think but then a lot of the ideas are cyclical and redundant or just kind of silly Im giving it three stars because that s what it conjures up in my mind, but I m not super sure what I m judging that off of, honestly It s a text that isabout the discussion it creates rather than a i liked it i didn t like it binary.PS The presentation went super well I got an A YAY An Experimental Enquiry Concerning the Source of An Experimental Enquiry Concerning the Source of the Heat which is Excited by Friction, which was published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, is a scientific paper by Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford that provided a substantial challenge to established theories of heat and began the th century revolution in thermodynamics An Enquiry Concernin Bestofnovels Online novel AnEnquiryConcerningthePrinciplesofTaste,andoftheOriginofourIdeasofBeauty,etcsummaryisupdating An Enquiry Concerning Human UnderstandingAn Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding Controversial and widely debated since its publication, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is a classic of empiricist philosophy whose questions remain as relevant today as ever David Hume, Enquiry Concerning Understanding This Core Concept video focuses on David Hume s work, the Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, and discusses his contention that we cannot know causes and effects in any a priori way or as aHOT FREE BOOKS An Enquiry Concerning the The following is an e text of areprint of theedition of David Hume s An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals Each page was cut out of the original book with an X acto knife and fed into an Automatic Document Feeder Scanner to make this e text, so